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S. Lavrov, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation

To the authors, publishers, and readers of the Russian version of the encyclopedia "Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies" of UNESCO

The unprecedented innovation revolution swept across the whole world. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies are rightfully considered the locomotive of this phenomenon. This assertion is supported by a team of outstanding scientists from every corner of the globe, who presented their works in the encyclopedia created under the auspices of UNESCO.
The encyclopedia is published first in Russian. This instills confidence that the contribution of Russian scientists and nanotechnologists over such an important track of civilization development will constantly increase.



The publication is effected with support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.



The publication is effected with the participation of:

Moscow State Institute of Radiotechnics, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University) (MIREA)
Bauman Moscow State Technical University (MGTU)
Institute of Applied Nanotechnology
SIB LAB


The International Commission acknowledge gratefully the support of:
The Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation on Science and High Technologies and its President V. A. Chereshnev
Federal Agency on the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo) and its head F. M. Mukhametshin
Permanent Delegation of the Russian Federation to UNESCO and its head E. V. Mitrofanova
UNESCO Moscow Office and its director D. Badarch
Russian Centre of Science and Culture in France and its head I. A. Shpynov
Salvatore Maugeri Foundation


International Commission for Development of EOLSS Theme on 6.152. Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies

V.N. Kharkin, President, Professor, Director General of the Magistr-Press Publishing House (Russia)
Osama O. Awadelkarim, Vice-President, Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics & Associate Director of the Center for Nanotechnology Education and Utilization, The Pennsylvania State University; Science and Technology consultant, U. S. Department of State (USA)
Chunli Bai, Vice-President, Executive Vice-president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), President of Chinese Chemical Society, foreign associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences, foreign associate of the US National Academy of Sciences (China)
S. P. Kapitza, Vice-President, prorector of ROSNOU, President of the Eurasian Physical Society, the member of the European Academy of Sciences (Russia)

Members of the Commission:

Yu. V. Gulyaev, member of the Presidium of RAS, Director of the Institute of Radiotechnics and Electronics, RAS, and the Institute of Microelectronics Nanotechnologies, RAS, Academician (Russia)
Mark J. Jackson, Birck Nanotechnology Center and Center for Advanced Manufacturing, Purdue University (USA)
Marcello Imbriani, Scientific Director of Salvatore Maugeri Foundation (Italy)
O. L. Kuznetsov, Co-Chairman of the National Committee "Intellectual Resources of Russia", President of RAES and the International University of Nature, Society and Man "Dubna" (Russia)
A. I. Morozov, Prorector of the Moscow State Institute of Radiotechnics, Electronics, and Automation (Russia)
Enrico Gnecco, Department of Physics, University of Basel (Switzerland)
Olivier Raimond, SIB Lab, Scientific Consultant (Belgium)
A. S. Sigov, Rector of the Moscow State Institute of Radiotechnics, Electronics, and Automation, corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia)
A. I. Smirnov, member of RAES, Professor (Russia)
V. A. Solodovnikov, member of the board of directors of the Institute of Applied Nanotechnology, Honored Inventor (Russia)
Carlo Farina, the Plenipotentiary Representative of the Salvatore Maugeri Foundation (Italy)
I. B. Fedorov, Rector of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Academician of RAS (Russia)
V. E. Fortov, member of the Presidium of RAS, Director of the Institute of Thermophysics of Extreme Conditions, Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Academician (Russia)
Ignac Capek, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Polymer Institute, Institute of Measurement Science, Dubravska cesta, Bratislava, and Trencin University, Faculty of Industrial Technologies, Puchov (Slovakia)
V. A. Chereshnev, the President of the Committee of the State Duma of the Russian Federation on Science and High Technologies, Academician of RAS (Russia)
A. G. Chesnokov, Deputy Director of Rossotrudnichestvo, Professor (Russia)
Mustafa El Tayeb, Secretary of the UNESCO-EOLSS Joint Committee; UNESCO, Natural Sciences Sector, Division of Science Analysis and Policies (Sudan)


Contents

1. Scientific Bases


1.1. Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures: why Nano is Different
Emil Roduner, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, Germany

1.2. Supramolecular Chemistry: from Molecular Architectures to Functional Assemblies
Huaping Xu, Xi Zhang, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Junqi Sun, State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structures and Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, China
Shuxun Cui, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China


1.3. Nanothermodynamics
G. Reza Vakili-Nezhaad, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran, and Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman

1.4. Nanostructures
Raul J. Martin-Palma, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, USA


1.5. Magnetism of Nanostructures
K. Bennemann, Institute of Theoretical Physics FU - Berlin, Germany

1.6. Quantum Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Systems
Michael R. Geller, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, USA

1.7. Nanosystems
Rinaldo Psaro, Matteo Guidotti, CNR, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Milano, Italy
Maila Sgobba, Centro CIMAINA and Dip. Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica, Milano, Italy


1.8. Multilayered Magnetic Nanostructures
A. I. Morozov, A. S. Sigov, Moscow State Institute of Radiotechnics, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University), Russia

1.9. Nanotribology
Enrico Gnecco, Department of Physics, University of Basel, Switzerland

2. Nanotechnologies

2.1. Synthesis of Nanophases
Carlo Cavallotti, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

2.2. Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Nanomachining
Mark J. Jackson, Birck Nanotechnology Center and Center for Advanced Manufacturing, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana IN 47907, USA

2.3. Nanocarbons through Computations: Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Graphene
E. F. Sheka, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, 117198 Moscow, Russia

2.4. Materials of the Future
Philip Ball, Consultant Editor, Nature, London, UK

2.5. Sculptured Thin Films
Joseph B. Geddes III, Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, USA

2.6. Nanocomposites
N. A. Stepanishchev, Faculty of Special Machinery, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia

2.7. Solar Energy Conversion at Nanostructured Interfaces
I. I. Tyukhov, All-Russian Research Institute of Rural Electrification (GNU VIESH), Russia

2.8. Nanotechnology for Wastewater Treatment: in Brief
I. J. El Saliby, H. K. Shon, J. Kandasamy, S. Vigneswaran, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

3. Devices and Systems

3.1. Nanoscale Material Systems
Li Yadong, Tsinghua University, China

3.2. Nanomechanics
M. S. Khlystunov, Moscow State Construction University, Moscow, Russia

3.3. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
Feng Songlin, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

3.4. Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS)
E. G. Kostsov, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of RAS, Russia

3.5. Nano- and Microsystems Engineering
K. G. Potlovskiy, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia

3.6. Nanoelectronics
A. S. Sigov, A. A. Shchuka, Moscow State Institute of Radiotechnics, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University), Russia

3.7. Molecular and Nano Electronics
Weiping Wu, Yunqi Liu, Daoben Zhu, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

3.8. Nanomedicine and Medical Nanorobotics
Robert A. Freitas Jr., Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Palo Alto, California, USA

3.9. Nanomaterials and Coverings with Antimicrobial Properties
V. A. Beklemyshev, I. I. Makhonin, the Institute of Applied Nanotechnology, CJSC, Russia
Umberto Maugeri, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Italy


3.10. Detonation Nanodiamonds: Technology, Properties and Applications
A. Ya. Vul, A. E. Aleksenskiy, A. T. Dideykin, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

3.11. Nanosensors - Based on Metal and Composite Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials
Ignac Capek, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Polymer Institute, Institute of Measurement Science, Dubravska cesta, Bratislava, and Trencin University, Faculty of Industrial Technologies, Puchov, Slovakia

4. Politics

4.1. State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Sphere of Development of Nanotechnologies
A. V. Martynenko, Apparatus of the Government of the Russian Federation, Russia



PUBLISHER'S NOTE
Director General of the Magistr-Press Publishing House, President of the International Commission for Development of EOLSS Theme on Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies, Professor V. N. Kharkin


Dear readers,
Magistr-Press Publishing House brings to your notice a Russian version of the encyclopedia "Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies" of the series "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems" of UNESCO/EOLSS (http://www.eolss.net). Together with outstanding nanotechnologists from more than ten countries, Russian scientists also take part in working on this encyclopedia, what reflects a significant potential of Russia in the area of advanced technologies and scientific development.
"Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems" is the biggest global data base on all aspects of sustainable development; it is a dynamic, live encyclopedia permanently supplemented by new knowledge as it is received by the international scientific community. Thus, the Theme "Nanoscience and Nanotechnology" of the "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems" will expand permanently; in a short time, new materials are expected, in particular, from Prof. Osama O. Awadelkarim on nano/micro-scale top-down processes and related machining techniques, from Prof. Chunli Bai on Asian nanoprograms; the chapters on nanotoxicology, mechanochemistry, nanoclusters, bottom-up techniques in nanomanufacturing, transport in nanostructures, etc., are planned.
Taking into account rapid progress of scientific researches and developments in the sphere of nanoscience and nanotechnologies, as well as the initiatives of several countries related to nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, we made all our best for fastest publication of this encyclopedia that contains newest contributions. We expect that the publication will be useful for all who are interested in nanoscience and nanotechnologies and will thus promote development of scientific and technological potential of the world community, progress, and sustainable development in accordance with the priorities of UNESCO.


Foreword by Mr Koichiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO (1999 - 2009), for the publication of the Russian edition of the UNESCO-EOLSS volume on Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies

We have learned how fundamentally incomplete humanity's current level of scientific understanding is regarding the preservation of life on our planet. In spite of the fact that the generating of scientific knowledge has never slowed, there is still a wealth of information still to be discovered. That is why collecting and systematizing existing knowledge is so important.
The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) does just this. In fact, EOLSS, the online version of which I inaugurated at the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002, is the most comprehensive knowledge base on sustainable development ever created by the international scientific community. More than 7,000 outstanding experts from 110 countries have contributed to create this unique virtual dynamic library equivalent to roughly 600 volumes of 800 pages if they were to be printed. Moreover, EOLSS is a living encyclopedia, which adds more themes as new scientific knowledge becomes available.
A good example of this feature of EOLSS is the volume on Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies. These terms combine knowledge developed over the past few decades in a new branch of science and industry dealing with the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales. By the beginning of the 21st century, many countries had included the development of nano-science and nanotechnologies among their national priorities. The initiative of the President of the Russian Federation on the "Strategy of development of nano-industries until the year 2015" is a good example of such an approach.
However, as always happens with human discoveries, the applications of new knowledge have brought not only opportunities and advances in the creation of new materials, medicine, biology, water purification, information technology, etc.; but also multiple and related challenges in the areas of education, ethics, society, health, the environment, safety and regulation. UNESCO has argued for a multidisciplinary approach to nanotechnology, be it through education, or ethics. In fact, UNESCO was the first to initiate an international reflection on nanotechnology and ethics.
This volume on Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies proposes such an interdisciplinary approach. I am certain it will be useful not only to university students who wish to introduce themselves to the subjects, but also to educators working on these subjects for lecture and seminar presentations, professional practitioners and informed specialists who wish to relate their knowledge to subjects transcending their own specialization, and to policy analysts, managers, and decision-makers, who wish to use this knowledge in their decision-making processes.
I am pleased to see EOLSS progress and expand, and I wish EOLSS every success in the future.


NANOTECHNOLOGY: AN OUTLOOK FOR THE FUTURE OF NANOWORLD
Professor S. P. Kapitza, chief coeditor


Nanotechnology is now considered the high technology of the 21st century. The term nanotechnology usually comprises the sum of technologies and methods based on the operations with individual atoms, molecules, individual nanoparticles with the aim of creation of components with size of 100 nanometers and their subsequent integration into functioning instruments and devices with crucially new properties. From this point of view, nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary applied science distinguishing first of all because it operates with substance at nanoscale that differs significantly by its physical and chemical properties from substance at macroscale.
This promising direction is a result of fundamental discoveries in modern physics, first of all, related to the concepts of quantum mechanics and physics of the phenomena where quantum effects appear at macroscale, often in very unexpected manner. Therefore, the concept related to quantum physics plays the decisive role in the development of nanotechnologies. There, all main properties of solids are associated with quantum phenomena: the crystalline structure of solids directly reflects the quantum properties of atoms and molecules and their symmetry. The same is true of electric and magnetic properties of solids. Moreover, within physics, mesophysics arose recently; it operates with the phenomena in the space between the quantum world and macroscopic world. In fact, many advances in nanotechnologies are based mainly on the concepts of mesophysics.
Let's refer to the living world. Discovery of bacteria and microbes related to the invention of perfect optical microscopes resulted in development of microbiology. Its contribution to medicine and microbiological industry determines the whole significance of these discoveries of basic science. As for discoveries of modern molecular biology, they might be called nanobiology in a like manner. Its object is just genome, and, on the part of more complex systems, this is viruses scarcely visible in the microscope.
Without this wider understanding, it is impossible to imaginate what we associate today with nanotechnologies and entry into the mesoworld situated between the quantum world of atoms and the macroworld. In particular, the problem of possibility to see in this world is still acute. For the moment, synchrotron radiation sources and so-called free-electron lasers are the most promising. But there are still no coherent nanoscopes, and it is often difficult for experimentalists and inventors to understand directly what happens in the nanoworld.
In particular, this is associated with physics and chemistry of catalysis, the field of huge importance, where the processes develop namely at the boundaries of nanoparticles, and their understanding is based mainly on indirect data, intuition, and experience. I listed the fields neighbouring with nanotechnology point by point because without this it is impossible to understand both its perspectives and the future results. In this context, contemporary nanotechnologist is similar to Gulliver in the shop of nanoworld's toys. As the first stage, this is understandable and necessary, but, with the lapse of time, a man matures and begins to understand that nanotoys, though very amusing, are only a step toward more advanced understanding of the nanoworld.
Nevertheless, nanomaterials developed and used in various devices and processes boggle imagination of researchers and designers. Carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphene, nanocrystals find application in electronics, construction industry, medicine, chemical industry, computer engineering. Devices and processes with their application give impressive results. By now, nanotechnological methods allow development of molecular nanorobots, molecular propellers, other mechatronic devices of nanoelectronics.
There are apparent successes in nanobiotechnology. First of all, these include a possibility to create controlled mechanosynthesis, in other words, making compositions of atoms and molecules by means of their controlled approach until chemical bonds becomes active. Such processes of self-assembly and self-organization instill hope of development of technological processes capable to reconstruct group technology in microelectronics. To make this, it is necessary to create the system nanocomputer - nanomanipulator. In this case, it is sufficient to design any product, and it will be created and reproduced by the assembly site. Undoubtedly, biocompatible neurointerfaces and implants allowing interaction between human nervous system and computers and global nets, then nanomedical robots will be developed...
These perspectives are infinite, but this is still a realization in the nanoworld of that what we see round about us; it is the initiatory step in exploration of mesoworld, when we move from the world of toys as models of the known to the world of principally new performances. Hence, the present encyclopedia shall promote rising a new generation of the people of nanotechnological age - scientists and inventors and realizing the potential available in this field. This development will be based not so much on scaling of the known, but rather on fuller exploration of the nanoworld, using concepts of quantum physics, the methods and concepts of modern molecular biology and chemistry.


THE DEVELOPMENT OF NANOSPHERE IN RUSSIA AND INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION
F. M. Mukhametshin, Chief of Rossotrudnichestvo, Doctor of Political Science


At the present time, it is impossible to imagine the perspectives of scientific and technological and socioeconomic development without using achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. The potential range of application of these achievements is so extensive that this affords ground for considering nanotechnologies as a foundation of new high-technology economics of 21st century. Understanding of this fact in Russia is reflected in the policy of serious national support of nanosphere.
The Letter of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of May 10, 2006, emphasizes that nanotechnologies are one of the most promising directions and ways of development in energy saving, element base, medicine, robotics. Head of the state gave also directions on beginning of budget financing of development of the industry of nanotechnologies and creation of element base.
In the same 2006 year, the President of the Russian Federation affirmed the priority directions for development of science, technologies and technics in the Russian Federation, among them, there is the industry of nanosystems and materials. Furthermore, nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are included into the list of critical technologies of the Russian Federation.
In the framework of presidential initiative "The strategy of Development of Nanoindustry" introduced in 2007, three main tasks of the nanoindustry development in Russia were set:
  • At the first stage, there is a task of cardinal increase of production volume of nanotechnological produce already releasing and selling, saturation of respective markets in the next three-four years;
  • The task of the second stage is the development and putting into industrial production of new kinds of nanotechnological produce that are expected at the market in three-five years;
  • The task of the third stage is the priority development of principally new directions in the sphere of nanotechnologies that ensure creation of supersector education-scientific and manufacturing medium in Russia in perspective for the next 10-20 years.
The main content of this stage will be development and creation of:
  • Produce of nanobiotechnologies;
  • Hybrid bionic-type devices and apparatuses;
  • Nanobiosystems and devices including principally new hybrid bionic-type sensing systems;
  • Biorobotic systems.
Fulfilment of the third-stage tasks will lead to the creation of principally new technological basis of the economics in the Russian Federation.
Successful solution of the assigned tasks is impossible without appropriate instruments of the national policy in the sphere of nanotechnologies, infrastructure, and effective coordination.
For this purposes, the Program of Development of Nanoindustry in the Russian Federation for a period till 2015 and the Federal Target Programme "Development of the infrastructure of nanoindustry in the Russian Federation for 2008-2010" are developed. A significant series of projects related to nanotechnologies and nanomaterials became a part of the Federal Target Programme "Researches and Developments in the Priority Directions of Development of the Nanotechnological Complex of Russia for 2007-2012". The questions of ensuring interaction of the federal executive authorities in the process of development of nanotechnologies and nanoindustry, formation of the market of nanoproduce and nanoservices are the function of the National Commission for High Technologies and Innovations.
The structure of national nanotechnological network that ensures concentration of resources on the priority directions of researches and development, increase of working efficiency and the level of coordination, creation of favorable conditions for accelerated introduction to the business turnover of new competitive produce of nanotechnologies is forming. The national nanotechnological network already includes or will include in the future:
  • The Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute that performs scientific activity on realization of the President's initiative "The Strategy of Development of Nanoindustry";
  • The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (Rusnano) that solves the problems of organizational and financial support of innovation activity in the sphere of nanotechnologies;
  • The organizations that effect financing of the project of nanotechnological development including venture foundations;
  • Scientific, educational, design and industrial centers and laboratories established on the basis of universities, Russian Academy of Sciences and other scientific organizations, enterprises and institutions of different property categories performing investigations in the sphere of nanotechnology and release of nanoproduce.
As a condition of effective organization of working of national nanotechnological network, Nano-Net, a network for exchange of research-and-technology and engineering data, has been created and develops.
The abovementioned facts show a settled intention and practical steps toward transition of Russia to the innovative economics where nanoscience and nanotechnologies hold a prominent place.
The accelerated development of nanospere in the world is highly associated with wide international cooperation.
Federal Agency on the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo) in association with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation will assist the concerned Russian ministries and agencies in establishing business and scientific relations with foreign partners in the sphere of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in every way. In particular, we suppose:
  • To maintain the international cooperation for the purpose of realization of the most significant innovative projects of national importance in the sphere of nanoscience and nanotechnologies, broadening of basic researches;
  • To stimulate creation of education-research and research-and-production integrated structures, partially by means of active promotion of Russian scientific and research and development deliverables to the world market;
  • To render assistance in scientific and research-and-technology relations with member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States, creation of united research-and-technology and information space within the framework of the alliance of Belarus and Russia;
  • To ensure communication with compatriots involved into scientific, research-and-technology and innovative activity abroad, to engage them actively to the realization of international scientific programs and projects with participation of Russia;
  • To expand the practice of training and retraining of foreign specialists at the Russian universities and leading scientific organizations;
  • To contribute to maintaining and development of international contacts of the constituent territories of the Russian federation in the field of research-and-technology as well as in the field of education;
  • To maintain the interaction between science and civil society in international discussion of the questions of the effects of nanotechnologies to human health, social and ecological aspects of their application.
In the course of development, science and technology change our picture of the world; it was in the same way always. On the one hand, they give new possibilities to mankind, on the other hand, scientific and technological revolution brings forth challenges and threats. In the context of current stage of civilization development, the side effects comprise, for example, a possibility of utilization of high technologies by terrorists, deepening of research-and-technological inequality of nations.
Moreover, the questions about ethicality of some directions of scientific researches arise. International society still continues to discuss ethicality of conducting the researches of stem cells, some aspects of gene engineering, in particular, when the possibility of cloning of advanced organisms is discussed.
In short, there are many questions put by research-and-technological development. International society is to answer them, including the field of lawmaking, and even to give moral estimates to various scientific discoveries and directions.
The latter appears to be a matter of paramount importance, because since the ancient world it is known that the society that denies ethics for increasing its scientific, military or economic potential reverses its power against itself soon or late. We may find examples in support of this fact in the contemporary history, too.
Andrey Tarkovsky, a great Russian film-maker, commented his science-fiction film "Solaris", which was recognized worldwide, like that: "Insight into the nature's internal mysteries should be inextricable connected with ethical progress. Stepping to a new stair of knowledge, it is necessary to put the second foot onto a new ethical stair. I wanted to show in my film that the problem of moral firmness, moral purity transpierces our being as a whole, even in such areas that are not related to ethics at first sight, for example, such as entry into space, exploration of real world, and so on".
Meanwhile, it is obvious that scientific and technological cooperation is an integral part of progress, development of human civilization. Thereby, Russia as a country with traditionally strong scientific school is by no means intended to stay out of this process. To the contrary, Russian state, with unconditional support from the side of civil society in this question, is intended to develop the nanosphere actively. The perspective is to track Russia to the leading positions in this field.


NANOTECHNOLOGIES, A SYMBOL OF 21ST CENTURY
I. B. Fedorov, Rector of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University


Nanotechnologies are a symbol of beginning of the 21st century for many directions of development of science, technics, and technology. It is difficult to refer a field of knowledge, branch of industry, agriculture, medicine where introduction of advances of nanotechnologies has no significant influence on increase of efficiency of application and usage. For each specialist, nanotechnology is creation of systems, materials, devices, and products at the nanoscale level. Already in the next years, we may expect scientific outbursts with application of advances of nanotechnologies. First of all, they should include significant increase in computer performance, regeneration of organs of human body, individual selection and targeted delivery of medicines, obtaining of new materials with properties unknown at present, new methods of information transfer, creation of subminiature devices on the basis of self-assemblage and so on.
It ought to be noted that a number of purely scientific results in the field of creation of nanomaterials, nanosystems, nanotechnics was obtained in the last years. Some results were confirmed by experiments and breadboard, laboratory models. However, the transition from laboratory to industrial models is difficult enough and not known at present. This is due to necessity of development both technologies of atomic precision and high-performance industrial systems of atomic precision. Solving of the problems of creation of such technologies and systems is a task of nanotechnological engineering (nanoengineering), interdisciplinary field of basic and applied science and technology, whose subject are the researches, design and improving of methods of development, manufacture and application of integrated systems based on the principles of nanotechnologies and microsystems engineering. This definition represents a concentration of both the several-centuries-long experience of engineering and new aspects introduced into engineering by nanotechnologists.
The advances of both nanoengineering and nanotechnologies depend on the extent and quality of formation of creative teams of specialists, on their professional education. In this respect, Russian universities will play a significant role. I wish to mention the following:
  • In the concrete, no university is capable to buy or independently develop the necessary material and technical base in the required volume; in this relation, it is necessary to promote cooperation of both the universities within the country and international cooperation of universities and leading scientific centers and companies;
  • It is necessary to develop a network of the centers of collective exploitation, scientific centers and laboratories at the universities and organization of their close interaction with industry that will ensure performance of real projects on request of industry or within the frameworks of research grants;
  • It is necessary to select the most gifted advanced students and to involve them into payable research activity performed by the university laboratories and companies associated at the universities (almost every university has its own so-called business incubator supported by some companies);
  • The universities should have an equipment stock that allows training on the principle "from the simple to the complex"; it is necessary: a) to have an adequate stock of simple and reliable equipment used for performing conventional laboratory works for wide range of students; b) to have a specialized pilot experimental equipment that allows realizing the concrete projects for specialties; c) to have unique research facilities ensuring performance of breakthrough investigations.
In the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, a center of collective exploitation is organized where the unique research and technological equipment is installed for conducting the works at the high scientific level. At the same time, the departments of the university have simpler equipment on which the students familiarize with the bases of nanotechnology and prepare to work using complex installations. Actual graduation works are prepared. On requests of industry, research and development works are carried out. All this holds out a hope that in the next time a large cohort of specialists will arise in science and industry that will be able to solve the most complex problems of realization of perspectives of nanotechnologies.



Contents

1. Scientific Bases


1.1. Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures: why Nano is Different
Emil Roduner, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Stuttgart, Germany
Properties like color, melting point, ionization potential and electron affinity, electrical conductivity, or magnetism which for bulk amounts of matter do not depend on size become size-dependent when the size of a particle falls in at least one dimension below a certain limit, which is normally taken to be about 100 nm. On this basis, the properties of matter can be tuned to their desired values by adjusting the size of nanoparticles and the thickness of thin layers or wires. For chemists this is particularly important in catalysis.

1.2. 1.2. Supramolecular Chemistry: from Molecular Architectures to Functional Assemblies
Huaping Xu, Xi Zhang, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
Junqi Sun, State Key Lab for Supramolecular Structures and Materials, Jilin University, Changchun, China
Shuxun Cui, Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China

Supramolecular Chemistry aims at developing highly complex chemical systems from components in interacting by noncovalent intermolecular forces. As initiated by J. M. Lehn, the field was and is the basis for most of the essential biochemical processes of life. It has grown over twenty years into a major domain of modern teaching, research and technology. It has fueled numerous developments at the interfaces with biology, physics, materials science and biomedicine, thus giving rise to the emergence and establishment of supramolecular science, today a broad multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary domain, providing a highly fertile ground for creative cooperation of scientists from very different backgrounds. First and foremost among the motivations for exploring supramolecular chemistry is the desire to synthesize new robust, functional, and technologically important materials by mimicking nature. In nature, organization on the nanometer scale is crucial for the remarkable properties and functional capabilities of biological systems. A second impetus is the desire to design, using functional small-molecule building blocks, new synthetic materials that feature even more useful ensemble properties emanating directly from nanoscale and microscale ordering. Lastly, the need for improved miniaturization and device performance in the microelectronics industry has inspired many investigations into supramolecular chemistry.

1.3. Nanothermodynamics
G. Reza Vakili-Nezhaad, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran, and Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman
Different approaches to nanothermodynamics including surface thermodynamics, non-extensive statistical mechanics, Hill's theory of nanothermodynamics, and tensorial approach to thermodynamics are given in this chapter. Starting from the first appearance of the term nanothermodynamics in the literature, its development is presented and its connection to the previous related theories on thermodynamics of small systems has been discussed in details. Relation between nanothermodynamics and surface thermodynamics as well as non-extensive statistical thermodynamics based on Tsallis statistics is revealed through the concept of sub-division potential introduced in Hill's theory of nanothermodynamics. Extensive and intensive thermodynamic properties definitions in conventional Gibbs thermodynamics have been modified to be applicable to the small systems through the Euler's theorem of homogenous functions. Some mathematical concepts applicable in nanothermodynamics are introduced and in all topics presented, in case of the presence of experimental evidences, they have been given as well. Most important considerations of theoretical and experimental nanothermodynamics have been reviewed as the final concluding remarks to draw a comprehensive conclusion.

1.4. Nanostructures
Raul J. Martin-Palma, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, USA

When one or more of the dimensions of a solid are reduced sufficiently in size, its physico-chemical behavior departs significantly from that of the bulk state. With reduction in size, different and often new electrical, mechanical, chemical, magnetic and optical properties emerge. The resulting structure is a low-dimensional structure. The typical dimensions are usually in the range of a few nanometers. The confinement of particles in a low-dimensional structure leads to a dramatic change in their behavior and to the manifestation of novel size-dependent effects, which usually fall into the category of quantum size effects. Nanostructures are low-dimensional structures. Quantum size effects appear in their electrical, thermal, magnetic and optical properties, depending on the dimensionality, and offer a rich palette of phenomena to be technological exploited. Several old techniques have been improved and several new techniques have been devised to fabricate and characterize nanostructures.

1.5. Magnetism of Nanostructures
K. Bennemann, Institute of Theoretical Physics FU - Berlin, Germany
Characteristic results of magnetism in small particles and thin films are presented. As a consequence of the reduced atomic coordination in small clusters and thin films the electronic states and density of states modify. Thus magnetic moments and magnetization are affected. Results are given for single transition metal clusters, cluster ensembles and thin films and tunnel systems.

1.6. Quantum Phenomena in Low-Dimensional Systems
Michael R. Geller, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, USA
A brief introduction to the physics of low-dimensional quantum systems is given. The material should be accessible to advanced physics undergraduate students. References to recent review articles and books are provided when possible.

1.7. Nanosystems
Rinaldo Psaro, Matteo Guidotti, CNR, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Milano, Italy
Maila Sgobba, Centro CIMAINA and Dip. Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica, Milano, Italy

Inorganic nanosystems are defined as nanosized chemical objects whose composition is merely inorganic and which exhibit peculiar features due to quantum-size and geometrical effects. Two are the general synthetic pathways by which nano-objects are obtained: the so-called 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. Mainly in the latter method, chemistry plays a unique role in assembling and building up nanometric units from smaller ones. The nanosystems can be defined and classified according to the hierarchical order of dimensionality. Zero-dimensional systems include pseudo-spherical objects such as nanoclusters and nanoparticles, supported onto inorganic bulk supports as well as in colloidal solutions, or ceramic nanopowders. One-dimensional systems take into account carbon-based, metal-based or even oxide-based systems in which the extension over one dimension is predominant over the other two, such as solid nanofibers, nanowires or nanorods, as well as hollow nanotubes. As two-dimensional nanosystems, the crystalline flat nanometric materials, such as nanodiscs or nanoprisms, and the amorphous nanofilms and nanomembranes are considered. Then, three-dimensional nanosystems consist of both crystalline and amorphous nanostructures, such as nanocrystals and a very large variety of ordered nanoarranged porous materials. Three-dimensional arrangements can be also created from simpler components, as nanoparticles or nanorods, and superstructures or superlattices with improved features are thus obtained.
The description, the synthesis, the properties and the main applications in technology and industry of the chemical systems at nanoscale most commonly found in inorganic chemistry are here summarized and reviewed. Finally, few highlights are given on inorganic-organic hybrid nanosystems and on systems with applications in biochemistry, as these subjects are on the borderline with organic chemistry and biology.

1.8. Multilayered Magnetic Nanostructures
A. I. Morozov, A. S. Sigov, Moscow State Institute of Radiotechnics, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University), Russia
Frustrations of exchange interrelation between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers of multilayered magnetic ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic nanostructure arising due to roughness of layer interface (uncompensated antiferromagnetic surface) and in the case of atomic smooth interface (compensated antiferromagnetic surface) are described. The distribution of magnetic order parameters arising near the layer interface is studied. Magnetic phase diagrams "layer thickness - roughness" for two-layer ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic system and spin-ventral ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic system are obtained.

1.9. Nanotribology
Enrico Gnecco, Department of Physics, University of Basel, Switzerland
In the last 20 years, experiments performed with the atomic force microscope gave new insight into the physics of single asperities sliding over solid surfaces. These results, together with complementary experiments realized by surface force apparatus and quartz microbalance, established the field of nanotribology. At the same time, increasing computing power allowed for the simulation of mechanical processes in sliding contacts consisting of several hundred atoms. Atomic processes cannot be neglected in the interpretation of nanotribology experiments. Experiments on well-defined surfaces reveal indeed atomic structures in friction forces. The chapter begins with an introduction on friction force microscopy, including the calibration of cantilever force sensors. After an overview of contact models and experiments on the nanometer scale, we introduce the Tomlinson model, which is commonly used to interpret atomic stick-slip. Measurements of friction on the atomic scale are discussed, which revealed important effects like superlubricity and thermal activation. The onset of wear on atomic scale has recently come into the scope of experimental studies and is described in the last chapter. Important topics like dissipation in noncontact force microscopy and electronic friction are also mentioned.

2. Nanotechnologies

2.1. Synthesis of Nanophases
Carlo Cavallotti, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
The principal modern methods used in the synthesis of nanophases are described. First the growth of quantum wells, using molecular beam epitaxy or metal organic chemical vapor deposition, is considered. Some of the methods determining the self-assembly of quantum wires on epitaxial substrates are then presented, and their relevance to nanofabrication discussed. Finally, the synthesis of quantum dots through colloidal chemistry, and hetero-epitaxial growth on mismatched surfaces, are both considered.

2.2. Nanoscience and Nanotechnologies: Nanomachining
Mark J. Jackson, Birck Nanotechnology Center and Center for Advanced Manufacturing, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana IN 47907, USA
In nano and micromachining processes the actual material removal can be limited to the surface of the workpiece, i.e. only a few atoms or layers of atoms. At this range, inherent measurement problems and the lack of more detailed experimental data are limiting the possibility for developing analytical and empirical models as more assumptions have to be made. On the basis of atomistic contact models, the dynamics of the local material removal process and its impact on the material structure as well as the surface generation can be studied. First pioneering applications in molecular dynamics (MD) indentation and material removal simulation were published between 1989 and 1991. The development of nanomachining processes is currently in its embryonic stage, but is showing its development in the area of machining electronic materials. This chapter highlights the current advances in nano and micromachining and the development of machine tools capable of controlling atomistic features. The chapter also discusses the use of diamond microtools in this quest and also focuses on the current advances being made in micromanufacturing such as desktop machine tools and ultra stable machining structures. The chapter is based on material presented at various international conferences by the author and contributions made by the author's collaborating colleagues in various international journals, conferences, and in the textbook, 'Nano and Micromachining' edited by J. Paulo Davim and Mark J. Jackson, published by ISTE Wiley (Nano and Micromachining, ISTE-Wiley, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84821-103-2). The bibliography contained in this chapter provides the reference material that was used in the current chapter and is contained in the work by the author's colleagues and is contained in the textbook edited by Jackson and Davim (Nano and Micromachining, ISTE-Wiley, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84821-103-2).

2.3. Nanocarbons through Computations: Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Graphene
E. F. Sheka, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia
Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene belong to a particular class of nanomaterials for which a non-completed covalent coupling of odd electrons is a distinguished feature. The odd electrons, whose number is determined by the difference between the numbers related to valence electrons and to bonds formed by atoms, provide an enhanced chemical activity of the molecular body due to appearing effectively non paired electrons by a total number ND. Their partitioning over atoms NDA exhibits individual atom chemical reactivity and/or susceptibility. Both quantities can be transparently calculated within unrestricted single-determinant Hartree-Fock approximation (broken spin-symmetry approach) thus providing grounds for a highly controlled computational synthesis based on the NDA distribution (NDA map). Governing by the map one can convincingly perform a computational chemical modification or, by other words, computational synthesis of derivatives that are the products of the considered addition reaction. A choice of target atoms by the highest NDA value is the leading point of the procedure. The procedure is equally applicable to fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene.

2.4. Materials of the Future
Philip Ball, Consultant Editor, Nature, London, UK
The development of new techniques for seeing and manipulating matter from the atomic scale upwards has enabled an increasing element of rational design to be incorporated into materials innovation, enabling materials to be tailored to particular tasks. In particular, these technical developments are shrinking the size scales at which engineering can be conducted. Concomitantly, materials science has experienced a trend away from structural materials towards functional ones: from materials that perform some passive structural role (generally supporting a heavy load) to ones that perform some active function, such as generating an electrical current or closing a valve. This change makes materials increasingly important for a wide range of technologies, notably medicine and information technology. The materials of the future will therefore arise from collaborative efforts between scientists ranging from electronic engineers to chemists to cell biologists.

2.5. Sculptured Thin Films
Joseph B. Geddes III, Akhlesh Lakhtakia, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, USA
Sculptured thin films (STFs) are assemblies of nanowires that can be fabricated from many different materials, typically via physical vapor deposition onto rotating substrates. The curvilinear nanowire morphology of STFs is determined by the substrate motions during fabrication. The optical properties, especially, can be tailored by varying the morphology of STFs. In many cases prototype devices have been fabricated for various optical, thermal, chemical, and biological applications.

2.6. Nanocomposites
N. A. Stepanishchev, Faculty of Special Machinery, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia
Nowadays, the industry of nanotechnology develops torrentially. One of the most perspective directions in introduction of nanotechnology into industry is manufacture of composite materials. Nanocomposites are nanomaterials consisting of two or more phases in which at least one phase is presented by nanoscale particles.
The world market of nanocomposites comprises three basic segments, namely, ceramic-, metal-, and polymer-matrix nanocomposites. Most often, polymers act as matrix. Metals and ceramics are used much less often. Nanostructure-based composites have unique properties: high durability and plasticity, high catalytic and magnetic characteristics, selective absorbing ability, tribotechnical properties, thermal fastness and chemical resistance. Such characteristics determine demand for nanocomposites in various industries: shipbuilding, aircraft engineering, chemistry, power engineering, medicine, biology, etc. It is demand for nanocomposites in many industries what promotes further growth of the sector.
It is known that creation of composites is complicated by essential difference of properties between matrix and filler that does not allow using the characteristics of stronger component to the full extent. Since the advent of nanosized fillers, there emerged a possibility of matching physical mechanical properties of the basic composite components - a matrix and a reinforcing filler. Strengthening action of nanoparticles in polymers is related rather with the influence of nanofiller on the structure of adjacent matrix layers: more dense packing of polymer molecules, crystallization and texturing of polymers, formation of other crystal modifications, than with additivity (addition) of mechanical properties of a matrix and a filler under the Hall-Petch law. Specific surface increase of a filler (decrease of diameter of fullerenes or nanotubes) improves both its interaction with a matrix and properties of a composite as a whole. In this regard, homogeneous distribution of nanoparticles in a matrix is of much importance. Such distribution could be achieved only at very low concentration of nanoparticles (usually not more than 0,5 % by weight). This became possible due to very high specific area of the nanofiller surface that sometimes exceeds 1000 m2/g depending on nanoparticle type.
The analysis of available information on nanocomposites leads to a conclusion that this research trend has huge prospects. The problems that were considered insoluble recently, now are on the agenda. For example, artificial heart valves are under development from analogy with natural model. Such valves combining advantages of mechanical and biological artificial limbs will have almost unlimited lifetime. These structures will be weaved from a nanofibre (a yarn of long nanotubes) by means of the newest technologies of microknitting manufacture.
With the advent of long carbon nanotubes, creation of heavy-duty ropes, which can be used, in particular, in construction of a space elevator that will replace modern power-consuming, not ecofriendly and rather dangerous way of payload delivery into orbit also is predicted.

2.7. Solar Energy Conversion at Nanostructured Interfaces
I. I. Tyukhov, All-Russian Research Institute of Rural Electrification (GNU VIESH), Russia
The use of nanotechnologies opens ample possibilities for improvement of processes of solar energy conversion. Nanostructured materials have been used both for direct conversion of solar energy to heat, electricity, and fuel and indirect use of solar energy, such as, for example, in devices for obtaining and storage of hydrogen or for obtaining of self-cleaning glasses and coatings. The special physical effects associated with nanoscale are of much interest because these effects are related to the interesting macroscopic properties with wide field of application in the solar energetics. The use of nanotechnologies allows adoption of new effective and inexpensive ways of application of solar energy in all spheres of our life.

2.8. Nanotechnology for Wastewater Treatment: in Brief
I. J. El Saliby, H. K. Shon, J. Kandasamy, S. Vigneswaran, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
This chapter briefly deals with recent advances and applications of nanotechnology for wastewater treatment. Under the nanotechnology umbrella, a number of new procedures for producing nanomaterials ultimately used for the treatment of wastewater are presented. These techniques extend from the fabrication of membranes from nanomaterials to the use of catalysts for the decomposition of noxious compounds in water. Research advances for the use of metals, bimetallic nanoparticles, mixed oxides, zeolites and carbon compounds in wastewater treatment are also reviewed. Finally, the impact of nanotechnology on human health and the environment is briefly discussed.

3. Devices and Systems

3.1. Nanoscale Material Systems
Li Yadong, Tsinghua University, China
Oxides are the compounds with oxygen as one of the main chemical compositions. It is the largest existence in mass in the world, and closely related to our everyday life. Due to the existence of 22% of oxygen in air, there usually exist thin oxide shells at the surface of metal or other substrates.
Oxide can be divided into 2 groups from chemical point of view: main group oxide and subgroup (transition metal) oxide. The properties of main group oxides are relatively simple and less functional. One simple and obvious fact is: most main group oxides are colorless, usually shown as white powder. While oxides of subgroup elements, which are exclusively metals (transition metals) are often colorful (red, green, yellow, pink, etc.), and rich of functions, including superconducting, semiconducting, magnetic, fluorescent properties, etc. These properties are commonly related to their non-filled electronic configurations, or nonstoichiometric compositions, etc. And thus they become the main reservoir for exploring novel oxide functional materials.

3.2. Nanomechanics
M. S. Khlystunov, Moscow State Construction University, Moscow, Russia
With the intensification of the research and development works in the sphere of nanotechnologies and the accumulation of representative results of experimental confirmation of fantastic perspectives of nanoindustry development, the scientific community comes to grips with a problem of creation of principally new instruments of investigation and technological manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanodevices. In this connection, the problems of nanomechanics, both theoretical and practical, gain primary importance.
In theoretical aspect, solving of problems of nanomechanics is a principally new direction in theoretical physics because the objects of nanoworld are situated between the world of elementary particles, atoms and molecules, where the laws of quantum mechanics are effective, on the one hand, and the macroworld where the laws of classical mechanics are effective, on the other hand.

3.3. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)
Feng Songlin, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology (SIMIT), Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) are integrated devices or systems on micro scale that combine electrical and mechanical components together by employing IC batch fabrication, which can sense, control, and activate mechanical processes to achieve complicate functions on informatics.

3.4. Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS)
E. G. Kostsov, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of RAS, Russia
The peculiarities of construction and functioning of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) as evolvement of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) - the most intensively developing sector of modern microelectronics - are described. Development of NEMS is also a consequence of general development of nanotechnologies as a whole and working out of the elements of nanoelectronics. This direction in the frameworks of programs of works on nanotechnology and microelectiomechanics in Western countries is named "nanoelectromechanics" and represents one of the higher priority technical directions for the next 5 years.
At present, NES are at the stage of researches; there are many scientific publications dedicated to the development of this direction, but information on their commercial application is absent. Here, the current state of this direction, wide range of its practical potentialities and the perspectives of further development are reviewed.

3.5. Nano- and Microsystems Engineering
K. G. Potlovskiy, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Russia
Nano- and microsystems engineering is an actively developing direction that creates functionally finalized nano- and microdimensional devices and systems, whose characteristics essentially differ from the parameters of systems and devices of analogous designation created by the traditional technologies.
Construction of microelectromechanical systems includes an experience of constructive, engineering and production experience of different technological fields, among them technologies of integral circuits, mechanical engineering, material science, electrical engineering, chemistry and chemical engineering, hydraulic engineering, optics and control and measuring equipment.
Modern MEMS are used in cars as accelerometers for sensors controlling air-bag expanding, heads of ink-jet printers, reading and recording heads of disk drives of computers, microcircuits of projection displays, blood pressure meters, optical switching devices, microvalves, biosensors and many other devices that are produced and delivered in large industrial amounts.
Microelectromechanical systems are one of the most advanced technologies of 21st century; they made revolution in production of both industrial articles and consumer goods as a result of joining of microelectron silicon-based technologies and technologies of micromachining. MEMS technologies and MEMS devices may have deep influence on our mode of life.

3.6. Nanoelectronics
A. S. Sigov, A. A. Shchuka, Moscow State Institute of Radiotechnics, Electronics, and Automation (Technical University), Russia

Several directions of development of nanoelectronics as a newest direction in electronics are briefly described. The main tendencies in design of transistors both by traditional silicon technology and using the latest achievements of nanotechnologies are discussed. New actively developing tendencies in nanoelectronics such as spintronics and polytronics are described. The domain of nanoelectronics based on technical solutions not related to the transistor structures is discussed.
3.7. Molecular and Nano Electronics
Weiping Wu, Yunqi Liu, Daoben Zhu, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Molecular and nano electronics using single molecules or nano structures as active components are promising technological concepts with fast growing interest. It is the science and technology related to the understanding, design, and fabrication of electronics devices based on molecules or nano structures. Molecular and nano electronics will push advances in future computer technology far beyond the limits of silicon. "Single molecule electronics", which is the ultimate molecular nano electronics, would make it possible to realize information systems of more than 1000 times higher performances using less than 1/1000 resources, which would satisfy the social requirements for high performance information systems several decades from now.
Nano electronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Although the term nanotechnology is generally defined as utilizing technology less than 100 nm in size, nano electronics often refer to transistor devices that are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. Unique materials and properties such as quantum electronic transports will be reviewed for various structures such as molecular switches, rectifiers, memories, transistors for next generation electronic devices and circuits.

3.8. Nanomedicine and Medical Nanorobotics
Robert A. Freitas Jr., Institute for Molecular Manufacturing, Palo Alto, California, USA
Nanomedicine is the process of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using molecular tools and molecular knowledge of the human body. In the relatively near term, nanomedicine can address many important medical problems by using nanoscale-structured materials and simple nanodevices that can be manufactured today, including the interaction of nanostructured materials with biological systems. In the mid-term, biotechnology will make possible even more remarkable advances in molecular medicine and biobotics, including microbiological biorobots or engineered organisms. In the longer term, perhaps 10-20 years from today, the earliest molecular machine systems and nanorobots may join the medical armamentarium, finally giving physicians the most potent tools imaginable to conquer human disease, ill-health, and aging.

3.9. Nanomaterials and Coverings with Antimicrobial Properties
V. A. Beklemyshev, I. I. Makhonin, the Institute of Applied Nanotechnology, CJSC, Russia
Umberto Maugeri, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Italy

The paper describes the available experience of application of antimicrobial materials in medicine, hygiene, and cosmetics, usage of antibacterial textiles, biocide paint-and-lacquer coatings based on the principles and methods of nanotechnology and nanomaterials.
The necessity of development and manufacturing of new effective biocompatible nanomaterials and coatings with antimicrobial, bactericidal properties is highlighted, what is related to the increase of number of microbial infections, their influence on the human society, development of the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms.
An advanced direction of development and application of nanocompositions based on ecological biocompatible sorption materials - natural and synthetic polymers, mineral clays, using of biologically active metals, metal ions (silver, copper, zinc) for modification (intercalation) of such structures is discussed.
High efficacy of application of nanosystems on the basis of biometal ion intercalated montmorillonite (natural clay mineral) for antibacterial processing of textile articles, natural and artificial leather, nonwoven fabrics, medical polymers, orthopedic articles, hygienic articles and cosmetics, for giving antimicrobial and fungicidal properties to paint-and-lacquer coatings is demonstrated.

3.10. Detonation Nanodiamonds: Technology, Properties and Applications
A. Ya. Vul, A. E. Aleksenskiy, A. T. Dideykin, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
The paper discusses specifics in the technology of synthesis, the structure, main properties and applications of detonation nanodiamonds produced in explosion from carbon of the explosive. Various models of the structure of a detonation nanodiamond particle, methods employed in studies of the particle structure, and the potential inherent in particle surface modification are assessed. The physical and chemical properties of detonation nanodiamonds are briefly described. A short account is given of the history of discovery of the detonation method of nanodiamond synthesis and of the progress in the technology of their production. A glossary of the main terms used is provided. The main publications bearing on the technology, properties and applications of detonation nanodiamonds are listed.

3.11. Nanosensors - based on Metal and Composite Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials
Ignac Capek, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Polymer Institute, Institute of Measurement Science, Dubravska cesta, Bratislava, and Trencin University, Faculty of Industrial Technologies, Puchov, Slovakia
Nanotechnology is the engineering and art of manipulating matter at the nanoscale. Nanoscaled inorganic composite materials have been used due to their high chemical inertness, non-swelling effect, high purity and rigidity. The versatility of physical and chemical properties of metal, semiconductor, noble and composite nanoparticles render them as promising materials in the fields ranging from optoelectronics to sensors. These nanoparticles or their self-assemblies are able to discriminate the mixtures of gases, volatile organic compounds, and odors. Advances in the fabrication of metal and noble metal nanoparticles have yielded nanostructured materials with distinctive properties, which can be potentially applied to (bio)sensors. The integration of metallic or semiconductive nanoparticles with organics and biomaterials (e.g., dyes, enzymes, nucleic acids, or antigens/antibodies) has led to the development of electrochemical or optical biosensors. Hybrid nanoscale materials are well established in various processes such as organic and inorganic compounds, nucleic acid detachment, protein separation, and immobilization of enzymes. Those nanostructures can be used as the building blocks for electronics and sensor devices because uniform metal coatings with the small and monodisperse domain sizes are crucial to optimize nanoparticle conductivity and to detect changes in conductivity and absorption induced by analyte adsorption on metal nanoparticle surfaces. The highly ordered assembly of zero-dimensional and one-dimensional nanoparticles is not only necessary for making functional devices, but also presents an opportunity to develop novel collective properties. Nanoscale semiconducting materials such as carbon nanotubes or nanowires show great potential for use as highly sensitive electronic sensors. In order to meet the specific requirements demanded by particular applications, the chemical modification of carbon nanotubes is essential. The derivatized carbon nanotubes differ from the crude material in their good solubility, which enables both a more extensive characterization and subsequent chemical reactivity. Quasi-one-dimensional semiconducting nanostructures, such as nanowires or nanobelts, are considered as an important multifunctional building block for fabricating various nanosensors and nanodevices. The field effect transistor is not only a basic electronic device but also exhibits a broad range of sensor applications. Semiconductor nanocrystals known as quantum dots have been increasingly utilized as biological imaging and labeling probes because of their unique optical properties, including broad absorption with narrow photoluminescence spectra, high quantum yield, low photobleaching, and resistance to chemical degradation. The surface modification of quantum dots with antibodies, aptamers, peptides, or small molecules that bind to antigens present on the target cells or tissues has resulted in the development of sensitive and specific targeted imaging and diagnostic modalities for in vitro and in vivo applications. Noble metal nanoparticles, with desirable nanoscaled sizes and unique physical properties - particularly the colors associated with their surface plasmon resonance- are highly suitable signal transducers for biosensors and building blocks in nanoassemblies. In particular, surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanosensors enable the chemical characterization of the nanometer vicinity of the gold nanoparticles and the measurement of vibrational spectra at a sensitivity and lateral resolution unachieved so far in other experiments. Micro- and nanofabricated cantilevers can provide a versatile platform for real-time, in situ measurements of physical, chemical, and biochemical properties of physiological fluids. New stimuli responsive properties were developed in N-isopropylacrylamide monomer and its derivatives around the critical temperature, above which its polymer precipitates out of solution or changes its volume, making it a valuable material for applications in sensing, analysis and microfluidics.


4. Politics

4.1. State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Sphere of Development of Nanotechnologies
A. V. Martynenko, Apparatus of the Government of the Russian Federation, Russia
The industry of nanosystems and materials concerns priority directions of science, technologies and engineering development in the Russian Federation.
Bases of the Russian Federation state policy in the field of nanotechnologies development are defined by the document of 2007 under the title of "Presidential initiative in the nanoindustry development Strategy". The primary goals of the Russian nanoindustry development for the next 10-20 years are formulated in this document. Realization of the formulated problems should lead to creation of an essentially new technological basis of economy.
According to the governmental program documents, nanoindustry development in the Russian Federation is carried out in such areas as nanoelectronics, nanoengineering, functional nanomaterials and high-purity substances, functional nanomaterials for energetics, functional nanomaterials for space technology, nanobiotechnologies, constructional nanomaterials, nanotechnologies for safety systems.
Federal, regional, branch and departmental purpose-oriented programs providing financing of workings out in sphere of nanotechnologies and finishing of their results to a stage of industrial production are the major tools of the state support of researches and workings out in area of nanotechnologies.
The Russian Corporation of Nanotechnologies (RUSNANO), a national corporation created in 2007 with purposes of assistance of realization of state policy in sphere of nanotechnologies, developments of innovative infrastructure in sphere of nanotechnologies, realizations of projects of creation of perspective nanotechnologies and nanoindustry, became the base institute for development of innovative processes in sphere of nanoindustry.
The infrastructural base of the nanoindustry sector in the Russian Federation is formed as national nanotechnological network including a set of organizations of various organizational and legal forms, performing fundamental and the applied researches, carrying out the processes of technologies commercialization, and also carrying out corresponding personnel training.
A special place in the named network belongs to the head scientific organization on coordination of works in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials that is the Russian Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute".
The Russian Federation is interested in global integration into the world of nanotechnological environment, in the cooperation in the given sphere on mutually advantageous conditions.